Relationships in Shakespeare’s Era and Today

orsino and viola

(Orsino & Viola by Frederick Richard Pickersgill)

Although human nature tends to be consistent in how it behaves and interacts in various relationships, such as between siblings and in romantic connections, an analysis can show how these relationships in cultures through the Elizabethan period in which Shakespeare reflects in his works, to the current era, have changed and how they’ve relatively stayed the same.

In Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night, the play reflects the Elizabethan culture of its time in how women were considered of lesser stature than men (Sharnette), the roles of the upper class and the commoners, and how it is centered around the festival of the twelve days of Christmas, even named after the twelfth night on the eve of Epiphany Day (“Twelfth Night”).

The theme of relationships is essential to Shakespeare’s play, Twelfth Night, because it demonstrates masking of the characters’ true identities causes confusion until their true selves are revealed. Once they no longer hide who they are, this brings about strengthening and growing romantic relationships for characters, Viola, Orsino, Olivia, and Sebastian. But it also produces the painful recognition of one’s own delusions of self-importance and unreciprocated love in the case of the character, Malvolio. These interactions can be seen in any generation of the history of human relationships.

In Shakespeare’s time, women were considered emotionally and physically weak and required the care of male relatives or husbands.  They were property of men and were expected to grow up to become wives and mothers with no other ambitions.  Those women who were able to work outside the home were employed in domestic occupations, such as maids or cooks.  They were not permitted to be lawyers, doctors, or politicians.  In addition, women were not permitted to be actors on stage (Sharnette).

The prohibition of women holding any jobs held by men is apparent in Shakespeare’s plays where women dressed as men in order to get jobs men possessed, such as Viola’s disguising herself as Duke Orsino’s young page.  The relationships between men and women and how they interact with each other are paramount in Shakespeare’s works.

In Shakespeare’s era, the twelfth night or eve of Epiphany was the last evening of festivities before the actual day of Epiphany and the Christmas season officially ended (“Twelfth Night”).  The twelve days of the Christmas season have festivities each day, and at the beginning of the celebrations, a person is chosen to play the Lord of Misrule, who is in charge of the Christmas festival, which allows men and women to relax their traditional roles and the regular order of things is reversed, or turned upside down.

In other words, the townspeople take on the opposite role of who they are in social status and sex.  For example, a peasant is chosen to be the Queen for that evening, and the Queen is then disguised as a peasant.  Women can dress as men and vice versa.  There are masquerades and pantomimes in these festivities.

lord of misrule epiphany

The Lord of Misrule’s reign ends at the end of the evening on the eve of Epiphany, or the twelfth night, and then all social statuses and traditional roles return to normal (“Twelfth Night”).

Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night depicts the reverse in gender roles and social statuses and shows how these changes cause disorientation and anxiety for some of the characters involved in romantic relationships (Shakespeare 641-69).

In Twelfth Night, the protagonist, Viola, disguises herself by cutting off her long hair and dressing in male clothing which makes her nearly indistinguishable from her twin brother, Sebastian, who she believes drown in a shipwreck that washed her ashore only days before.

Because of the culture in which Viola lives, she must mask her womanhood in order to secure a job to support herself since she has no living male relatives to take care of her.  She thinks of this as a temporary occupation until she decides what she will do with her life as she still mourns the loss of her brother.

When she becomes the young page, Cesario, to the Duke Orsino, she quickly falls in love with him and is left in a terrible position of hiding her feelings for him to continue to support herself financially.

The duke is in love with a countess named Olivia.  His love is more of an infatuation, and he enjoys being immersed in the feelings of falling in love.  He sends Viola/Cesario to pass on his loving words to Olivia. Because of Viola’s beautiful way with words, she attracts both Orsino and Olivia.

Orsino is naturally drawn to Viola/Cesario because of the feminine traits she unintentionally exudes.  An example of this is when Viola/Cesario talks about love from a woman’s point of view. When Orsino asks what she knows about women and love, she says:

  Too well what love women to men may owe:

  In faith, they are as true of heart as we.

  My father had a daughter loved a man,

  As it might be perhaps, were I a woman,

  I should your lordship.

                                                                        (2.4.116-20)

When the Duke asks of the daughter’s history, Viola continues by saying:

  A blank, my lord.  She never told her love,

  But let concealment, like a worm i’th’bud,

  And, with a green and yellow melancholy,

  She sat like Patience on a monument,

  We men may say more, swear more:  but, indeed,

  Our shows are more than will; for still we prove

  Much in our vows, but little in our love.       

                                                                        (2.4.122-30)

Through Viola/Cesario’s perception of a woman’s love, Orsino ponders this and is drawn to Viola/Cesario (Shakespeare 652).  Likewise, in Viola’s personal awareness as a woman of what words move women, Olivia listens to Viola/Cesario and is drawn to Viola/Cesario instead of the duke.

olivia from 12th night painting

(Olivia from Twelfth Night painted by Edmund Leighton)

Olivia had sworn off men because of the recently double loss of her father and brother within months of each other.  She is left alone with no male guardian much like Viola’s situation, but Olivia is left financially well off in a beautiful house.  She had kept herself veiled and closed off from men until that time.  With the knowledge of how women think and respond to certain words and tones in language, Viola/Cesario is able to persuade Olivia to come out of mourning and consider the duke. But the countess also notices Cesario, and falls in love with him specifically because of Viola’s personal understanding of what women like to hear (Shakespeare 656).

Olivia’s steward, Malvolio, masks his true feelings for her, as well as his belief that he is above his current station in life.  He is disillusioned with self-importance and puffed up with arrogance and conceit.  This is revealed when he is in the garden before finding the letter Maria, Olivia’s gentlewoman in waiting, forged claiming Olivia’s love for him.

Malvolio sees himself marrying Olivia, saying, “To be Count Malvolio” (2.5.36).  His pride paves the way to his belief that he can marry the lady he is serving, saying, “There is example for’t; the lady of the Strachy married the yeoman of the wardrobe” (2.5.40-1).

malvolio in yellow stockings

Malvolio dresses in outdated yellow stockings and fixes up his hair as if he is a young man, believing from reading the contents of the letter, that this is how Olivia wishes him to present himself to her, which only succeeds in making him look like a fool.  Olivia questions his health, if he is feeling all right.

Malvolio ends up locked inside a dark building–the nasty work of Sir Toby and his cronies.  They claim he’s gone mad.  Through humiliation and discovering the truth–Olivia does not love him (Shakespeare 669)–Malvolio learns he cannot be someone or something he is not and leaves his position at the Countess’ house.

When Sebastian shows up at the grounds of Olivia’s house, she mistakes him for Cesario.  But soon, both Sebastian and Viola are standing across from each other, and they are moved by seeing each other, as their sibling bond is very strong.

Viola reveals she is indeed his sister, and because of Sebastian’s being alive, Viola is able to tell who she truly is, which brings about relief, joy, and love Orsino has developed for his young page, and opens the door to Sebastian and Olivia’s new love for one another.

Since Viola and Sebastian are not of lower class, such as those of servants and pages, this makes their relationships with the duke and countess more socially acceptable in the Elizabethan era.

In Shakespeare’s plays, The Taming of the Shrew and King Henry the Fifth, the theme of relationships threads through and is the crux of the storylines.

There is camaraderie between King Henry and his men in fighting France, which he illustrates in his speech on St. Crispin’s Day by saying, “We few, we happy few, we band of brothers” (4.3.60). But there is also disloyalty and betrayal by three of his soldiers, one of which is one of his closest friends.

katherina and bianca

In The Taming of the Shrew, the display of the caustic relationship between Katherina and her sister, Bianca, is because of her jealousy of Bianca, in the beginning of the story when Bianca says, “Is it for him you do envy me so?” (2.1.12).

Additionally, Petruchio treats his wife, Katherina, as if she’s a mere pet to be controlled when he says, “My falcon now is sharp, and passing empty; And til she stoop, she must not be full-gorged, For then she never looks upon her lure” (4.1.181-83).

Throughout the play, their relationships show a lack of love but do turn in that direction for Petruchio and Katharina by the end of the play, once their masks of scornfulness are removed (Shakespeare 358).   Overall, their love is much more rough and defiant than Viola and Orsino’s.

In contrast to the loving sibling bond between the twins Viola and Sebastian, sisterly love is not totally repaired at the end of The Taming of the Shrew when the sisters switch their attitudes in which Katharina becomes obedient and Bianca does not (Shakespeare 358).

A contemporary example of the type of romantic relationship between Viola and Orsino is reflected in the 1958 movie, Houseboat, with the characters, Tom Winters (Cary Grant) and Cinzia Zaccardi (Sophia Loren).

Cinzia is an Italian woman from an upper class/wealthy family, for whom her father is a symphony conductor.  Feeling trapped under her father’s thumb and the stifling society of the rich, she escapes while her father is in the middle of a concert for which Tom and his three children are attending.

houseboat pic

At a fair nearby, Cinzia bumps into Tom’s youngest son, Robert, who also runs off feeling trapped, still dealing with the recent death of his mother (Tom’s ex-wife). Eventually, Cinzia returns Robert to Tom’s hotel room, and there is a misunderstanding on who she is and where she came from, and she is mistaken for a woman of lower class and a domestic servant. She accepts this incorrect assumption and pretends to be a nanny and a maid in order to stay away from her own life troubles.

As the story moves along, Tom has an attraction to Carolyn, his ex-wife’s sister, while Cinzia has fallen in love with him.  In the end, Tom does not agree to marry Carolyn, and has fallen in love with his nanny/maid.  He doesn’t know until the end of the movie that she is the daughter of a wealthy family (Variety).

Both Cinzia and Viola mask their true identities and fall in love with the men they serve, pretending to be someone and something they are not.  In the late 1950s in America, women had a bit more independence and freedom. They could obtain an education and were not forced into arranged marriages.  Women could also work outside the home. However, the jobs available were more stereotypical female positions, such as nurses, teachers, and secretaries, which paid less than men in the same jobs.

In present day, women have the freedom to choose who they wish to marry, can go to any college they want, and pursue whatever job they wish, for the most part.  Unfortunately, they still do not make the same income as men, generally speaking.

sisters from frozen

In regards to the sibling love of Viola and Sebastian, an example in contemporary society is the 2013 movie, Frozen, with the sisters, Anna and Elsa (Konnikova).  Their bonds are very close.  Of course, these are two sisters in comparison to a brother and sister, but the relationships are similar because of their devotion and deep love for one another.

Sebastian’s return from the dead gave Viola the strength and ability to reveal herself because with the realization that her brother was alive, she, once again, had a legitimate guardian and backing from a male relative so crucial in the culture in which she lived.

In Frozen, Anna, through her sacrificial love for her sister, saved Elsa from being killed by Hans.

In the same sense of sibling protection, Sebastian saved Viola from having to endure any more pain of love unrequited and masking her true identity.  As a result, Viola and Orsino’s loving relationship moved forward, and her unmasking gave way to the new loving relationship between Sebastian and Olivia (Shakespeare 665-68).

Modern sibling relationships are similar to ones from Shakespeare’s era, but women who have brothers are not reliant on them for their care.  They are able to be independent and care for themselves. Also, women today aren’t perceived as weak emotionally and physically by most of society.  Nevertheless, brothers are still considered protectors of their sisters in today’s society, and that’s okay with most sisters.  They appreciate their brothers’ looking out for them (Hall).

Shakespeare’s works have endured over time. Until his plays, there was little written and studied on the emotions and minds of people.  In his plays, Shakespeare revealed what it means to be a human being through the trials and joys of the relationships between people that his audience and readers up to the present day can relate to (Kotula et al.).

In literature, characters come to discover something about themselves and those they interact with.  Shakespeare displays this beautifully through Twelfth Night, for example, when Viola acknowledges her feelings for Duke Orsino, saying, “Yet, a barful strife!  Whoe’er I woo, myself would be his wife” (1.4.42-43).

Through the varied loving relationships in Twelfth Night, the revealing of a person’s true self and being oneself garners the love of others and the realization of who and what one is not.  Shakespeare’s works show the importance of love, friendship, loyalty, and sacrifice that are still relevant today.  Relationships require trust and loyalty, and these can only happen through honesty to oneself and to others.  These traits in relationships endure over the history of humanity.

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Works Cited
Hall, Alena.  “Proof There’s Nothing Quite Like a Sibling Bond.”  Huffington Post, 22 Aug. 2014, www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/22/sibling-bond-relationship_n_5688921.html.  Accessed 30 March 2017.
Konnikova, Maria.  “How ‘Frozen’ Took Over the World.”  The New Yorker, 25 June 2014, www.huffingtonpost.com/2014/08/22/sibling-bond-relationship_n_5688921.html. Accessed 30 March 2017.
Kotula, Nadia, et al.  “The Education Theory of Shakespeare.”  NewFoundations, 2011, www.newfoundations.com/GALLERY/Shakespeare.html. Accessed 18 April 2017.
Shakespeare, William.  “Twelfth Night.”  The Complete Works of William Shakespeare.  The Edition of The Shakespeare Head Press Oxford.  New York:  Barnes & Noble, 1994, pp. 641-69.
—.  “King Henry the Fifth.”  The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. The Edition of The Shakespeare Head Press Oxford.  New York:  Barnes & Noble, 1994, pp. 485-519.
—.  “The Taming of the Shrew.”  The Complete Works of William Shakespeare.  The Edition of The Shakespeare Head Press Oxford.  New York:  Barnes& Noble, 1994, pp. 329-58.
Sharnette, Heather.  “Elizabethan Women.”  Elizabeth R, 1998-2017, www.elizabethi.org. Accessed 6 April 2017.
“Review: ‘Houseboat.’”  Variety, 31 Dec. 1957, variety.com/1957/film/reviews/houseboat-1200419130/. Accessed 30 March 2017.
“Twelfth Night.”  Religionfacts.com, 2016.  www.religionfacts.com/twelfth-night. Accessed 6 April 2017.

I Spy The “No-No” Words in Fiction Books, and They’re Fine!

steaming mug and book

Lately, I’ve not had much to blog about. That is, until this post. Something popped into my brain, and I started writing, and, violà.

Actually, I’ve been busy reading fiction and writing fiction.

I’m still revising my novel, Passage of Promise. I just finished going through the whole story, adding scenes and revising and editing others. And it’s been great. Every time I do, my story strengthens and my main character ARC is more coherent.

Last week, I finished one of the best books I’ve ever read. It’s called The Great Alone by Kristin Hannah. I’ve read another book of hers called The Nightingale, but The Great Alone is superior to The Nightingale, in my opinion. The characters were chiseled out with such superb precision, and the plot was excellent. The evoking of emotions was fantastic, so much so, I cried in four different sections of the story. I was so moved by what was going on with the characters! Bravo, Kristin Hannah!

If you haven’t read The Great Alone, GET IT AND READ IT!!

Here’s the synopsis via Amazon:

Alaska, 1974.
Unpredictable. Unforgiving. Untamed.
For a family in crisis, the ultimate test of survival.

Ernt Allbright, a former POW, comes home from the Vietnam war a changed and volatile man. When he loses yet another job, he makes an impulsive decision: he will move his family north, to Alaska, where they will live off the grid in America’s last true frontier.

Thirteen-year-old Leni, a girl coming of age in a tumultuous time, caught in the riptide of her parents’ passionate, stormy relationship, dares to hope that a new land will lead to a better future for her family. She is desperate for a place to belong. Her mother, Cora, will do anything and go anywhere for the man she loves, even if means following him into the unknown.

At first, Alaska seems to be the answer to their prayers. In a wild, remote corner of the state, they find a fiercely independent community of strong men and even stronger women. The long, sunlit days and the generosity of the locals make up for the Allbrights’ lack of preparation and dwindling resources.

But as winter approaches and darkness descends on Alaska, Ernt’s fragile mental state deteriorates and the family begins to fracture. Soon the perils outside pale in comparison to threats from within. In their small cabin, covered in snow, blanketed in eighteen hours of night, Leni and her mother learn the terrible truth: they are on their own. In the wild, there is no one to save them but themselves.

Now, to discuss the subject matter mentioned in the title of this blog post.

As you know from my previous blog posts where I discussed reading a book on showing instead of telling, I shared some examples of what words to avoid and how to use certain words. Well, let me tell you. How many of us writers have been told don’t use the words “began,” “started,” “because,” “realized,” “wondered,” “knew,” and the like because they aren’t really active verbs.

Guess what?

I’ve read two different novels in the past few weeks, and both of them contained a few of these words. Did it ruin the flow of the sentences, the storyline, the action of the scenes? Nope. There’s a point when those words can be gingerly sprinkled throughout the many pages of novels, and it won’t drag down or mar the stories.

This is what happened for me.

I mean, I couldn’t help but notice all those taboo words and acknowledged where excellent descriptions and images were written. I think we writers tend to do that. But when you can get past that and be drawn in, or in my case, literally sucked into the lives of the characters in Hannah’s, The Great Alone, the few mentions of those less active words read just fine, fit in just fine because the rest of the words surrounding them make up for it.

Therefore, what I’ve learned is we don’t have to be totally anal about show, don’t tell, or banning these simple words from our sentences. In reality, it’s natural to have a conservative smattering of these words in our works. There, now. We can draw in a nice, cleansing breath and exhale with relief.

My novel, Passage of Promise, goes back through my critiquing group in a couple of weeks into the new year, and we’ll see how it goes from there. My next step is to re-read over my whole story and see if there are any parts that aren’t relevant or interesting enough to the storyline…read the flow and see if it all fits together the way it should. Upwards and onwards!

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The Core Element of Self-Sacrifice in Relationships

couple in sunset

The core element in relationships, especially in marriage, is the aspect of self-sacrifice.  In Eastern Orthodoxy, marriage is a type martyrdom, which is why crowns are placed on the bride and groom’s heads during the sacrament of marriage. They are crowns of martyrdom, which means giving selflessly to the other, which is the epitome of true love.

Self-sacrifice is also present in other relationships such as parents to their children, siblings to each other, and in close friendships.  The principle of self-sacrifice in marriage and family is greatly expressed through the two main female characters in the short stories, “The Thirteenth Night” and “Punishment.”

Although “The Thirteenth Night” and “Punishment” take place in different countries, they share the common thread of discontentment in marriage and how the core of selflessness may be lacking in their marriages and familial relationships. The two female protagonists in “The Thirteenth Night” and “Punishment” challenge their marriages that ultimately leads to self-sacrifice through apathy for one and self-sacrifice through tragedy for the other, deeply impacting their relationships.

In “The Thirteenth Night,” the protagonist, Oseki, weighs her desires against the greater good of her family and community, which is demonstrated through her conversations with her parents and her childhood friend.

The story opens with Oseki standing near her parents’ house, disheartened by the task before her–to ask their permission to divorce Isamu, her husband.  She then hears her father’s loud voice talking of all that he is thankful for that has to do with Oseki’s marriage.

She grapples with conflicting thoughts regarding the dire circumstances for her son, Tarō, if she were to leave her husband, and the financial well being of her parents and brother.  For a moment, she thinks, “But if she had her way and went through with the divorce, it would be the end of everything” (Ichiyō 2.7), which are pertaining to her thoughts above:  her relationship with her son and the loss of a job for her brother.

Oseki convinces herself at that moment that the permanent separation from her son and the loss of her brother’s job security are worth discarding for her freedom, and chooses her own desires to end the marriage rather than sacrificing her own wants for the sake of her marriage, son, and family.

Having a close bond with her parents, Oseki feels comfortable enough to share her miseries with her surprised parents.  In her descriptions of Isamu, he is seen as a man of importance, but with that, he displays arrogance and condescending behavior toward Oseki.  She points out, “You know, for the first six months or so after we were married, he was always at my side, doing everything he could for me. But as soon as Tarō was born—it’s frightening how much a man can change!” (Ichiyō 2.8).

Because “The Thirteenth Night” was written in the early 1900s and takes place in Japan in Japanese culture, there were no marriage or family counselors to talk to them about the changes that happen between a husband and wife after the birth of their first child.

We don’t know the details of their backstory, other than their relationship changed after their son was born, and it somehow led to Isamu’s negative changes and infidelities, although infidelities committed by husbands were not unusual in that time period or culture for married couples.  Clearly, there was a break in their relationship that had lost the element of self-sacrifice as well as mutual respect in their marriage.

Oseki’s parents show the customary love and support toward her. However, her father tells her, “Even if he is fussy and a little difficult sometimes, it’s still a wife’s duty to humor her husband” (Ichiyō 2.9). He also reminds her of the consequences of leaving her husband–never being able to see Tarō again.

In the mutual respect between Oseki and her parents, Oseki honors her father in a show of obedience, selflessness, and love, by ultimately making the decision to stay with her husband.

Oseki stays true to the core element of relationships–self-sacrifice.  She reaffirms this after she leaves her parents’ house and takes a rickshaw back home. She discovers the man driving the rickshaw is a childhood friend, Roku, who had once loved her and she him.  He shares all of his struggles in his present life since Oseki’s marriage.  She shares in his pains by saying, “You’re not the only one to suffer in this sad world…” (Ichiyō 2.10).

Once they have finished their conversation, they both go on with their own lives, showing self-sacrifice for the greater good instead of their own desires, keeping their relationships intact.

The difficult decision between the sacrifice of self and the family in “The Thirteenth Night” is explored in the short story, “Punishment,” through the protagonist, Chandara’s decision between life and death; in reconciling her marriage or dying for a crime she didn’t commit.

In dealing with combative relationships with her sister-in-law, Radha, and husband, Chidam, there is very little family support or show of the core element of self-sacrifice in Chandara’s family and marriage.  The story begins with the brothers Dukhiram and Chidam working in the fields with the sound of the daily squabbles between Chandara and Radha being heard throughout the village.

When the brothers get home, Dukhiram has a heated argument with his wife, Radha, and ends up killing her. He crumples to the floor in tears, scared and shocked by what he’d done and what would happen to him.

This terrible incident leads to the brothers consulting with a well-respected citizen of stature in the village. Chidam fears the fate of his brother and decides to say his wife killed Radha instead of his brother. Dukhiram accepts Chidam’s story out of fear and does not question blaming his crime on his sister-in-law.

It is understandable that Chidam would be alarmed and very concerned about his brother because their relationship is very close–they share a house and work together–but in Dukhiram’s cowardness, he does not show self-sacrifice and admit to the authorities that he killed Radha.

The marital relationship of Chidam and Chandara is cluttered with pride, pigheadedness, and jealousy.  Chidam cares more for his brother than his wife as demonstrated when he says to Ramlochan Chakrabarti, an important and outstanding member of the village, “If I lose my wife, I can get another, but if my brother is hanged, how can I replace him?” (Tagore 3.3).

It is true that Chidam only has his one brother, and it is understandable that he would want to save his brother from the damning consequences of his crime, but sacrificing his wife isn’t commendable.  This shows a lack of respect by Chidam for Chandara, and that he views Chandara as less important and inferior to his brother, which was the norm in Indian society at the time.

In his fears for his brother’s circumstances, Chidam adds insult to injury by informing his wife of his plan, for which Chandara is taken aback.  To lessen the blow, he tells her, “Don’t worry—if you do what I tell you, you’ll be quite safe” (Tagore 3.4), but he is not very confident later when he tells her he will get her out of the murder charge soon.  Angry and hurt, Chandara accepts the blame. The actions of Chidam show a deficit in self-sacrificial love to his spouse in their marriage.

In front of the village authorities, headstrong and hurt, Chandara confesses to the crime and later sticks to her confession in court even after Chidam and Dukhiram break down and tell the truth when they are in court.  In prison, Chandara shows her contempt for her husband in not accepting his request to visit her in jail.  She shows pride and desire for revenge against Chidam for hurting her that ultimately leads to her self-sacrifice to be free from her relationship with him by the authorities executing her for the crime (Tagore 3.5).

Both of the marriages in “Punishment” end in death through senseless acts.  The core element of self-sacrifice is twisted in the marital relationship between Chandara and Chidam, whereas she does sacrifice her life for Chidam’s brother, but she does not do it for selfless or honorable reasons.

The two main female characters in “The Thirteenth Night” and “Punishment” struggle with self-sacrifice in their marital relationships by defying their husbands, impacting their families and communities, one temporarily, the other permanently.

In the Japanese culture, “The Thirteenth Night” shows the tradition of collectivism where one makes the sacrifice for the greater good of the whole in the family and community, whereas.

The Indian story, “Punishment,” shows self-sacrifice in giving up one’s life through anger, retaliation, and to be free from the restrictive bonds of marriage and norms.

In the present day, self-sacrifice is still the most endearing and important element in marriage, family, and other relationships.

 

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Works Cited
Ichiyō, Higuchi.  “The Thirteenth Night.” Trans. Robert Lyons Danly. Modern World Literature. Asheville NC: Soomo Publishing, 2016. Web.
Tagore, Rabindranath.  “Punishment.”  Trans. William Radice.  Modern World
Literature.  Asheville NC:  Soomo Publishing, 2016.  Web.